The term “globalization” is directly associated with the increased circulation of information, products, and services around the world. But such an unpleasant issue as the spread and distribution of diseases is strongly supported by the globalization processes as well. Biological, social, and environmental conditions created by globalization greatly influence the likelihood that pathogens (microorganisms which cause diseases) spread, survive in their hosts, and become activated by other infections. However, globalization also provides more tools for better prevention, control, and more effective treatment of infections.
The spread of the infectious diseases accelerated with the development of tourism and eco-tourism in areas with the high rates of incidence. Tourists become hosts of infection themselves or carry the pathogens on their clothing. Transportation of infected products can also put yet healthy population at risk if goods enter the country by means of illegal trafficking.
Globalization cannot be responsible for the distribution and spread of infectious diseases in general. Modern systems of surveillance can detect how the disease patterns have changed over the time, nevertheless, other events unassociated with globalization make geographically-specific diseases appear in uncharacteristic areas. Globalization is to blame when the exposure, incidence of every particular disease, and determinants of the disease are studied over the years and prove the involvement of the global change. Not all processes relevant for the distribution of infectious diseases were caused by globalization, nevertheless, its contribution in this respect cannot be denied.