Global climate change does not come down to floods and hurricanes. As soon as an average amount of precipitation is greatly shifted towards one area, the opposite side becomes highly prone to droughts. While coastal areas become damaged by fierce ocean waves, internal parts of the continents experience an exacerbated version of dry continental climate. Precipitations become even more scarce, which naturally damages fertility of the lands. That is how the process of desertification begins.
Degradation of land is immensely advanced by human activity. Drying wells, raising monoculture, and cutting woods deprive wetlands and fertile fields from essential moisture. Involving more modern agricultural techniques, farmers drain soils and become dependent on artificial irrigation. Land degradation costs approximately US$40 billion every year. It involves enhancing irrigation equipment and using more fertilizers to restore the fertility of the soil.
Degradation comes alongside with the erosion of soils. Cutting woods, people change the way water flows through the landscape. Eventually, the land vulnerable to floods is washed away into rivers with all the fertilizers and insecticides it contains. Soil becomes even poorer, which induces farmers to increase the input of fertilizers.
To prevent degradation and deforestation, non-governmental organizations sustainable agriculture techniques to farmers. It is impossible, however, to achieve zero deforestation because of the constantly growing population. Many companies are not interested in sustainable practices because they do not allow to get a huge yield from comparatively small fields. On the other hand, many governments work on stopping deforestation by preventing extensive logging.