Population growth is one of the major concerns of NGOs that strive for a sustainable development. According to the UN report issued in 2015, the total population of the world has already exceeded 7 billion people. Population projection made by UN demographers predicts that it will grow up to 10 billion in 2050. Projections also show that high-fertility and overpopulated present-day countries will be the first to push population growth forward. Today India and China with the population of more that 1 billion people have the largest childbirth rate in the world. Demographers expect that several other African and Asian countries will also contribute to the overall population growth.
To construct these projections, the UN experts reviewed the current tempo of population growth in countries and analyzed shifting trends. They concluded that the population of India will outnumber the population of China in the next 5 years. Among the African countries, Nigeria grows in population rapidly, and by 2050 it is expected to outnumber the population of the US. Countries of Latin America experience population growth as well, however, it is not as dramatic as the increase in Africa and Asia.
Despite population growth will remain fast in the next 30 -50 years, fertility rates start to decline and population aging is progressing. For the last years, fertility slowed down even in Africa. The number of aged people is expected to double and triple until the twenty-second century. Europe leads the world in aging of the population.
Among other recent trends in population development, researchers highlight the increased life expectancy. The African region progressed significantly dropping the mortality among the newly-born. The overall life expectancy increased in the poor countries, which is a potent factor contributing to population growth and aging.