Post-war America was a fertile ground for racial violence. More than twenty riots happened in summer of 1919 alone. In the period from 1915 to 1920, African Americans moved northward to fill the shortage of the labor force in big cities. The minority looked forward to a better employment and acknowledgment of rights which were ignored in the South. However, the American Federation of Labor craft unions did not approve of new workers. The organization issued bans which segregated African Americans in their workplaces. Besides, a lot of African American soldiers enlisted hoping to get American citizenship as they return. The ruling class rejected the necessity to grant citizenship to these people which was another cause for mass repressions of 1919.
As soon as African Americans returned from the war, they found out that their demands will not be satisfied. Racial discrimination was stronger than ever. People were deprived of their jobs to underline that they are not wanted in the society. African American community had to stand violence of the police officers and hostile racial majority. Hundreds of thousands of people went on strike in 1919 demanding high salaries and recognition in the workplace. The ruling class, however, turned the majority of workers against African American community, thus, stimulated further riots. They resulted in deaths and significant property damage which was observed not only in big cities but in the countryside as well.
Protests against the racial violence gave birth to the modern Civil Rights Movement. People of color demanded social justice and openly ignored newly issued racist policies. Marches and demonstrations were conducted by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People which actively protested against racial segregation.