The discovery and further research of such a basic constituent of living beings as DNA opened an entirely new era in the medicine. It is difficult to overestimate the importance of DNA and chromosomes as they make up the entire genomes of living beings. The human genome, for example, consists of 3 billion pairs of DNA that determine our functioning. A profound genetic research granted us with a range of methods and techniques for deciphering and manipulating genes. For example, sequencing of nucleotides (the tiny parts of the DNA double helix) is the only method to find the place of a particular single gene within the complex DNA molecule.
The largest part of the genetic research is applied to medicine. Today, it is possible not only to diagnose conditions caused by impairment of the genetic structure but also to define the affected area and conduct manipulations with damaged genes. Though such manipulations as removal and insertion of extra genes are to the greater extent experimental, scientists anticipate that soon they will be able to successfully treat most genetic disorders.
Forensic science greatly relies on genetic experts to reproduce the picture of the crime. The evidence that remains at the place of crime can provide more faithful information about victims and suspected criminals than any witness. DNA helps to identify relics found in archaeological digging. Besides, the genetic image is important for defining parenting or finding family members of individuals.
Last but not least, the genetic science is widely applied to agriculture. Genetically modified crops have a huge potential to become a tool for efficient agricultural practices of the future.