Microbial factories are non-pathogenic microorganisms which transform the materials on the input and endow them with the new qualities. The simplest and most obvious example of a microbial factory is biodegradability. All living beings created by nature sooner or later die and undergo decay. During this process, bacterial organisms present in the environment “consume” the biomass and safely utilize it.
Under the influence of bacteria, raw material come through the process of fermentation. The materials acquire new chemical and physical properties and change their color, taste, flavor, etc.. It is perfectly visible on the example of yeast. These organisms are commonly used in the food industry as they help to produce bread and beer. They add a particular texture to the bakery dough which accelerates baking and improves taste. And, of course, yeasts are famous for converting sugar into alcohol while brewing. These examples are both simple and vivid, however, microbial factories help to create a much wider range of substances than just food.
Microbes and bacteria are widely used in the production of drugs. Genetically modified bacteria produce a large amount of pure human protein for the medical use. Transgenic bacteria help to create medicine for treating diabetes, hemophilia, tumors and Crohn’s disease.
Bacteria made an especially valuable contribution to the recycling process. If previously plastic items were developed from fossil fuels components, today all the excessive package can be made eco-friendly due to the biodegradable polymers produced by bacteria. Besides, certain bacteria may clear water and soils from toxic metals.